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托福考试词汇向导( 之三)


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托福词汇研究 Unit 11 - Unit 16

Unit 11

donor n.给予者 [ME<AF donour, OF doneur<L donator -oris<donare give]

dormant a.蛰伏的;休止的 [ME<OF, pres part of dormir<L dormire sleep]

dorsal a.背的;背部的 [F dorsal or LL dorsalis<L dorsum back]

dose n.v.一服;安排;混合物 [F<LL dosis<Gk dosis gift<didomi give DOSAGE下药;配药;剂量]

dotage n.老年糊涂;溺爱

dote v.衰老;年老昏慵;溺爱 [同DOAT ME, corresp to MDu doten be silly DOTING沉溺于爱的,溺爱的]

doughty a.勇敢的;坚强的 [OE dohtig var of dyhtig<Gmc]

dour a.闷闷不乐的 [ME(orig Sc), prob<Gael dull, obstinate, perh<L durus hard]

doze v.小睡 [17th c: cf Da d*se make drowsy]

draconian a.苛刻的 [Draco 雅典立法者]

draft n.草稿;汇票 [phonetic spelling of DRAUGHT草稿;汇票;起草;征兵]

drape v.悬挂的布 [ME<OF draper<drap<LL drappus cloth]

drawl v.n.懒洋洋地说;慢慢地说 [16th c: prob orig cant,<LG, Du dralen delay, linger(<OE "拖延")残留;徘徊;]

dreary a.沉寂的;可怕的;荒凉的 [OE dreorig<dreor gore: rel to dreosan to drop<Gmc]

dregs n.渣滓;最无用的部分 [dreg 渣滓,沈淀物,糟粕,废物;微量;些微]

drizzle v.下细雨 [prob<ME drese, OE dreosan fall drizzly n]

droll a.有趣的;滑稽的 [F dr e, perh<MDu drolle little man]

drone n.雄蜂;翁翁声;翁翁作声 [OE dran, dr’n prob<WG]

dross n.渣滓;无用之物 [OE dros: cf MLG drosem, OHG truosana]

drudgery n.乏味的工作;贱役 [durdge贱役;苦工;书呆子]

dubious a.怀疑的;可疑的 [L dubiosus<dubium doubt dubitation 怀疑,半信半疑]

ductile a.易变形的;柔软的;驯良的 [ME<OF ductile or L ductilis<ducere duct- lead]

dudgeon n.愤怒 [in(a)high ~ 极为愤怒]

dulcet a.悦耳的 [ME, earlier doucet<OF dimin of doux<L dulcis sweet]

duplicity n.欺骗;口是心非 [ME<OF duplicite or LL duplicitas(DUPLEX)]

durance n.禁锢;监禁 [ME<F<durer last<L durare: DURABLE]

dwindle v.日益减小;缩小;衰落 [dwine fade away<OE dwinan, ON dvina]

dynamic a.精力充沛的 [F dynamique<Gk dunamikos<dunamis power]

dyspeptic a.消化不良;忧郁 [dyspepsia(-sy)n L dyspepsia<Gk duspepsia(DYS-, peptos cooked, digested)]

earthy a.粗俗的

ebb v.退潮;潮落 [OE ebba, ebbian]

ebullient a.热情洋溢的 [L ebullire ebullient- bubble out(E-, bullire boil)ebullience -cy 沸腾;(情感的)迸发,热狂]

eccentric a.奇人;离心圆 [LL eccentricus<Gk ekkentros<ek out of+kentros CENTRE eccentricity n]

ecclesiastic a.教会的;神职者的 [F ecclesiastique or LL ecclesiasticus<Gk ekklesiastikos<ekklesia assembly, church: ECCLESIAL教 的];[教会机构的]

eclecticism n.折衷主义 [Gk eklektikos<eklego pick out]

eclipse n.v.蚀;光之丧失;暗然失色 [ME<OF<L<Gk ekleipsis<ekleipo fail to appear, be eclipsed<leipo leave]

ecology n.生态学;社会生态学 [G  ologie<Gk oikos house]

ecstasy n.狂喜;忘形

[ME<OF extasie<LL extasis<Gk ekstasis standing outside oneself<ek out+histemi to place ecstatic欣喜 若狂的,忘形的 恍惚 (陶醉) 的;心旷神怡的

ecumenical a.普通的;全基督教会的 [LL oecumenicus<Gk oikoumenikos of the inhabited earth(oikoumene)]

eddy n.漩涡;卷涡;旋风;漩卷 [prob OE ed- again, back, perh of Scand orig]

edify v.陶冶;教化;启发 [ME<OF edifier<L aedificare(EDIFICE)edification n]

educe v.引出;演绎 [ME<L educere educt- lead out(E-, ducere lead)]

eerie a.奇异的;怪诞的 [orig NEngl and Sc eri, of obscure orig: cf OE earg cowardly]

efface v.抹掉 [F effacer(EX-, FACE)]

effectual a.有效的 [ME<medL effectualis(EFFECT)]

effervesce v.冒泡;兴奋 [L effervescere(EX-, fervere be hot)]

effete a.疲惫的;枯竭的 [L effetus worn out by bearing young(EX-, FOETUS= fetus(生物)胎儿]

efficacy n.功效;效力

effigy n.肖像 [L effigies<effingere to fashion]

effluvium n.恶臭;臭气 [L(EFFLUENT)]

effrontery n.厚颜无耻 [F effronterie<effronte ult<LL effrons -ontis shameless(EX-, frons forehead)]

effulgent a.光辉的;灿烂的 [L effulgere shine forth(EX-, fulgere shine)]

effusive a.流出的;感情横溢的

egoism n.自私;自负;自我主义 [F egoisme ult<modL egoismus(EGO(<L."我")1(哲心理)自我(口语)自大;自尊心]

egotism n.自负;自大 [EGO+-ISM with intrusive -t-]

egregious a.非常的;过分的 [L egregius illustrious, lit ’standing out from the flock’<grex gregis flock]

egress n.出去;出口 [L egressus<egredi egress-(E-, gradi to step)]

ejaculation n.绝叫;失声 [L ejaculari to dart(E-, jaculum javelin标枪) ejaculate 突然叫出来,忽然说出来;射出(液体)]

elaborate v.尽心竭力地做 [L elaboratus pp. of elaborare(E-, labor work)]

elasticity n.弹性;伸缩力 [modL elasticus<Gk elastikos propulsive<elauno drive elastic有弹性的,伸缩自如的 an ~ string 松紧带]

elicit v.诱出;引出 [L elicere elicit-(E-, lacere entice)]

eliminate v.消除 [L eliminare(E-, limen liminis threshold(<OE "踩踏物")门槛;入口 (事物的) 开始,开端(of) He is on the ~] of [adulthood]

elite n.精华;精锐;社会名流

eloquent a.雄辩的;富于表现力的 [L eloqui(E-, loqui speak)ELOQUENCE雄辩,口才]

elucidate v.阐明;说明 [LL elucidare(E-, LUCID透明的;透彻的)]

elude v.躲避;困惑

[L eludere elus-(E-, ludere play)~ pursuit 逃避追踪 ~ the law 逃避法网 ~ a person’s understanding<问 题等>叫人无法捉 摸,令人困惑

elusive a.难懂的;难捉摸的 [an ~ answer 遁辞 track down an ~ fact 追查难以明了的事实]

emaciated a.瘦弱的;憔悴的 [L emaciare emaciat-(E-, macies leanness)]

emanate v.流出;发散 [L emanare flow out]

emancipate v.解放;解除 [L emancipare transfer property(E-, manus hand+capere take)]

embargo v.n.禁止通商;妨害 [Sp<embargar arrest<Rmc(IN-, BAR禁止)]

embed v.埋藏;埋入;深留心中 [The scene was embedded in his memory 那一幕情景 深深地留在他的记忆]

embellish v.装饰;布置 [ME<OF embellir(EN-, bel handsome<L bellus)]

embezzlement n.盗用;私用 [em+bezzle破坏 EMBEZZLE盗用;侵吞]

emblazon v.饰以纹章 [同BLAZON以纹章装饰]

emblem n.v.象徵;典型;寓意画 [ME<L emblema<Gk emblema -matos insertion<emballo throw in(EN-, ballo throw)emblematic -ical a]象 [的]

embody v.具体化;使成一体;编入 [embodiment赋与形体,具体化]

emboss v.雕成;使浮凸起 [ME,<OF(EN-, BOSS)]

embroil v.拖累;牵连;卷入纠纷 [F embrouiller(EN-, BROIL争吵;对骂]

embryonic a.胚胎的 [EN-, bruo swell增大,膨胀, grow)embryo n]

emend v.修正;校订 [ME<L emendare(E-, menda fault)emendation n]

emerge v.浮现;出现(从水中) [L emergere emers-(E-, mergere dip)emergence n]

emeritus a.名誉退休的 [L, pp. of emereri(E-, mereri earn获得)an ~ professor = a professor ~ 名誉教授]

eminent a.闻名的;显著的 [ME<L eminere eminent- jut突出;尖端 eminence n]

emollient n.镇痛剂;缓和药;润肤剂 [L emollire(E-, mollis soft)MOLLIFY抚慰]

emolument n.薪俸;酬报 [ME<OF emolument or L emolumentum, orig prob ’payment for corn-grinding’,<emolere(E-, molere grind)]

empathy n.心意相通;融为一体 [transl G Einf lung<ein in+F lung feeling, after Gk empatheia: SYMPATHY]

employ v.雇佣 [ME<OF employer ult<L implicari be involved<implicare enfold: IMPLICATE(<L."卷入其中")(文语 使]<[某人>牵连 (涉及) (犯罪等)]

empyreal a.天空的 [medL empyreus<Gk empurios(EN-, pur fire)]

emulate v.赶上或超过;模仿 [L aemulari(EMULOUS)emulation n竞争;仿效]

enact v.制定为法律 [en+ACT enactment n制定;条例]

enamored a.倾心的;被迷住的

enchant v.施魔法于;使迷惑 [ME<F enchanter<L incantare(IN-, canere cant- sing)ENCHANTING讨人喜欢的 ENCHANTMENT 魔];[喜悦]

enclave n.被包围的领土;飞地 [F<enclaver ult<L clavis key]

enclosure n.围绕;附件;围墙 [AF & OF(ENCLOSE围绕;放入封套)]

encompass v.包围;围绕 [COMPASS指南针;包围]

encumber v.阻碍行动;妨害 [ME<OF encombrer block up<Rmc encumbrance 妨害,障碍;障碍物]

endearment n.表示亲爱的行为

endemic a.地方特有的 [<Gk endemos native(EN-, demos the people)]

endocrinologist n.内分泌学家 [endocardial 心内的 心内膜的 endocarp(植物)内果皮 endocentric 向心结构的 endocranium(解)硬 膜];[颅内膜 endocrine 内分泌腺]

endorse v.确认;赞同;支持 [medL indorsare(IN-, L dorsum back)]

endorsement n.背书;合同

endow v.捐赠基金;资助 [ME<AF endouer(EN-, OF douer<L dotare<dos dotis DOWER)]

endue v.赋予 [earlier = induct, put on clothes: ME<OF enduire<L inducere lead in, assoc in sense with L induere put] [on(clothes)]

energize v.给与精力;使活动

enervate v.使衰弱 [L enervatus pp. of enervare(E-, nervus sinew肌肉;精力;动力)]

engender v.产生;酿成 [ME<OF engendrer<L ingenerare(IN-, generare GENERATE)]

engross v.使全神贯注 [en+gros wholesale大规模;批发 engrossing吸引人的,令人神往的 an ~ novel 令人着迷的小说]

engulf v.吞没;席卷 [en+GULF大沟]

enhance v.增加;提高 [ME<AF enhauncer, prob alt<OF enhaucier ult<L altus high enhancement增加;提高]

enigma n.谜;难解的事或人 [L aenigma<Gk ainigma -matos<ainissomai speak allusively<ainos fable enigmatic如谜的,难以理解的-cal]

enjoin v.命令;吩咐;禁止 [ME<OF enjoindre<L injungere(IN-, jungere join)]

enlist v.使入伍 [enlistment 兵籍登记,募兵;入伍 服兵役期间]

ennui n.怠倦;无聊 [F<L in odio: cf ODIUM(<L."憎恨")恶评;不受人欢迎;非难]

enormity n.罪大恶极;暴行 [ME<F enormite<L enormitas -tatis<enormis(ENORMOUS(<L."不寻常(norm)")巨大的,庞大的,非凡的]

enrage v.激怒 [F enrager(EN-, RAGE激怒;发怒)]

enrapture v.使狂喜;令人出神 [RAPTURE兴高采烈;狂喜]

ensconce v.藏匿;庇护;安置;安坐 [SCONCE小堡垒;头;烛台]

ensemble n.全体;合唱;女人全套服装 [F, ult<L insimul(IN-, simul at the same time)]

ensign n.舰旗;国旗;徽章 [ME<OF enseigne<L insignia: INSIGNIA(<L."识别记号")pl 徽章,勋章;(表示职务等的)识别证]

ensue v.因而发生 [ME<OF ensuivre ult<L sequi follow SUE控告;请愿]

entail v.惹起;使负担 [ME,<EN-+AF taile TAIL]

entangle v.使...卷入;使...混乱 [TANGLE混乱;缠结]

enthrall v.迷住;奴役 [THRALL奴隶;束缚]

entice v.怂恿;诱惑 [ME<OF enticier prob<Rmc enticement诱惑,怂恿 魅力 He fell victim to her ~ 他被她的魅力征服了]

entitle v.取名为;给予称号 [ME<AF entitler, OF entiteler<LL intitulare(IN-, TITLE)]

entity n.存在;实体物 [<LL ens being nonentity不存在之物;无足轻重者 Of course you are a ~;you will continue to be one until] [you prove your value to the community]

entomology n.昆虫学 [ENTOMO-昆虫, -LOGY egger eggar 哭叶蛾 ephemera 生命极短促之物;孚游 flea 蚤; geometer 几]何 [者;尺获]

entrap v.以网或陷阱捕捉 [OF entraper(EN-, TRAP)]

entreat v.恳求;乞求

[ME<OF entraiter(EN-, traiter TREAT)entreaty n 恳求;乞求 treaty 条约,盟约(文语)(个人间的)约束, 定]

entree n.入场权;进入权

entrench v.挖壕沟;防守 [The army ~ed themselves near the shore 军队在海岸附近挖壕沟固守 entrenched 确立的;确定的 an ~] [habit 根深蒂固的习惯 ~ bureaucrats 地位稳固的官僚]

entrepreneur n.企业家;主办人 [F<entreprendre undertake: ENTERPRISE 企业单位,公司 企业精神,冒险精神,积极性]

enumerate v.枚举;计数 [L enumerare(E-, NUMBER)]

enunciate v.发表;宣布;(清晰地)发音 [L enuntiare(E-, nuntiare announce<nuntius messenger)enunciation 发音 宣言;公告]

environ v.包围;环绕

[ME<OF environer<environ surroundings<en in+viron circuit<virer turn, VEER ENVIRONS pl周边;周 围的区域;近郊(都市的)郊外

envisage v.正视;面对;想像 [F envisager(EN-, VISAGE脸;面容)]

enzyme n.酵素 [同enzym G Enzym<med Gk enzumos leavened<Gk en in+zume leaven ZYMURGY酿造学 ZYMIC] [zymo-, zym-(用于复合字中)表"发酵,??"之义,如:zymolysis发酵;??解]

eon n.世;纪;代;极长之时间 [同eaon ~s ago 太古]

ephemeral a.短命的;暂时的 [Gk ephemeros: EPHEMERA生命极短促之物;孚游]

epicure n.美食家

[medL epicurus one preferring sensual enjoyment: EPICUREAN 美食家;享乐主义的 Epicurus 希腊哲 学家;伊比鸠鲁派始祖 Epictetus 希腊斯多噶Stoic 学派哲学家

epidemic n.传染病;流行;传染性的 [F epidemique<epidemie<LL epidemia<Gk epidemia prevalence of disease<epidemios(adj)(EPI-, demos the] [people)]

epidemiology n.流行病学;传染病学 [LL<Gk(EPI-在外, DERMIS皮)epidemic catarrh(医)流行性感冒]

epigram n.警句;短而机智的妙语 [<Gk epigramma -atos(EPI-, -GRAM)epigrammatic -ical a警句的;讽刺诗的;警句的]

epilogue n.戏剧中的收场白 [ME<F epilogue<L epilogus<Gk epilogos(EPI-, logos speech)]

epistemology n.认识论 [epistemic 知识的 epiphyte(医)皮上寄生菌]

epitaph n.墓志铭 [ME<OF epitaphe<L epitaphium<Gk epitaphion funeral oration(EPI-, taphos tomb)]

epithet n.(贬低人的)短语或形容词 [F epith e or L epitheton<Gk epitheton<epitithemi add(EPI-, tithemi place)]

epitome n.摘要;缩影

[<Gk epitome<epitemno abridge(EPI-, temno cut)TOME卷,册 epitomize 为的典型 Shylock ~s greed 谢洛克是贪婪的典型

epoch n.纪元;时代 [modL epocha<Gk epokhe stoppage 中止(活动);停止(争议期间的)停工,罢工]

equable a.宁静的;稳定的 [L aequabilis(EQUATE使相等,视为平等)]

equanimity n.平静;镇定 [L aequanimitas<aequanimis<aequus even+animus mind]

equestrian n.骑马者;骑术家 [L equestris<eques horseman, knight,<equus horse]

equilibrium n.平衡 [L(EQUI-, libra balance)]

Unit 12

equinox n.昼夜平分点;春分 [ME<OF equinoxe or medL equinoxium for L aequinoctium(EQUI-, nox noctis night)nocturnal 夜(间)]的2( [物)夜间活动的,夜出的 a ~ animal]

equipage n.马车 [F equipage(EQUIP装备)]

equitable a.公正的 [F equitable(EQUITY公平;公正)]

equivalent a.等价物

[E<OF<LL aequivalere(EQUI-, valere be worth)equivalence 同等,同值;(词语的)等义 2(化学)(原子的) 价],当量

equivocal a.意义不明显的 [EQUI-, vocare call;unequivocal明白的]

equivocate v.撒谎;蒙混 [ME<LL aequivocare(EQUIVOCAL)]

erase v.擦掉;抹去 [L eradere eras-(E-, radere scrape)erasure删除;删去的语句;涂擦处]

erotic a.n.色情的;好色之徒 [F erotique<Gk erotikos<eros erotos sexual love]

errand n.差使;(出差的)目的;差事 [OE ’rende<Gmc]

errant a.错误的;出格的;漂泊的 [ME: sense formed as ERR: sense 2<OF errer ult<LL itinerare<iter journey]

erratic a.不稳定的 [ME<OF erratique<L erraticus(ERR犯错)]

erroneous a.错误的 [ME<OF erroneus or L erroneus<erro -onis vagabond(ERR)]

erudite a.博学的 [ME<L eruditus pp. of erudire instruct, train(E-, rudis untrained)erudition n]

eruption n.喷出;长牙;发疹

escapade n.恶作剧;大胆妄为 [F<Prov or Sp escapada(ESCAPE)]

eschew v.避开;远离 [ME<OF eschiver, ult<Gmc: rel to SHY]

escort n.护送;护卫者;护送 [F escorte, escorter<It scorta fem pp. of scorgere conduct]

espionage n.间谍活动 [F espionnage<espionner<espion SPY]

esprit de corps n.团队精神

espy v.发现;看见 [ME<OF espier: SPY]

establishment n.确立;创立;组织;定收入

estate n.地产;不动产;时期 [ME<OF estat(STATUS)]

estranged a.疏远的;不和的 [ME<AF estraunger, OF estranger<L extraneare treat as a stranger<extraneus stranger]

etch v.蚀刻;蚀镂;施行蚀刻法 [Du etsen<G  zen etch<OHG azzen cause to eat or to be eaten<Gmc etching蚀刻法;腐蚀铜版术,蚀刻版];[ 蚀刻版版画

ethereal a.太空的;轻巧的 [L aethereus, -ius<Gk aitherios(ETHER太空;苍天)]

ethnic a.种族的;人种的 [ME<ecclL ethnicus<Gk ethnikos heathen<ethnos nation ethnography民族志学 ethnology人种学]

ethos n.性格;气质;民族精神 [modL<Gk ethos nature, disposition]

eugenic a.优生的

eulogy n.颂词;颂扬 [medL eulogium<(app by confusion with L elogium epitaph)LL eulogia praise<Gk eulogistic -tical a颂 的];[赞颂的]

euphemism n.委婉的说法 [Gk euphemismos<euphemos(EU-, pheme speaking)]

euphonious a.悦耳的 [F euphonie<LL euphonia<Gk euphonia(EU-, phone sound)euphony n]

evacuate v.撤空;排泄;撤退 [L evacuare(E-, vacuus empty)]

evade v.躲开 [F evader<L evadere(E-, vadere vas- go)]

evanescent a.易消散的;暂时的 [evanesce 逐渐看不见;消散]

evaporate v.蒸发;使脱水 [L evaporare(E-, vaporare as VAPOUR)]

evasive a.逃避的;推诿的

even a.傍晚 [OE ’fen]

evince v.表明;表示 [L evincere: EVICT VINCIBLE可征服的]

eviscerate v.取出...之肠 [L eviscerare eviscerat-(E-, VISCERA内脏)]

evoke v.唤起;引起 [L evocare(E-, vocare call)evocative 唤起的;召唤的 a scene ~ of the good old days 一个令人想起以往]美[ 好日子的情景

exacerbate v.加重;加剧 [L exacerbare(EX-, acerbus bitter)]

exacting a.苛求的;严厉的

exaction n.勒索;榨取 [ME<L exactio(EXACT)]

exaggerate v.夸大;夸张 [exaggerare(EX-, aggerare heap up<agger heap堆积)]

exalt v.提高;擢升;赞扬;歌颂 [ME<L exaltare(EX-, altus high)exaltation n]

excavate v.挖开;凿通;挖出;发掘 [L excavare(EX-, cavus hollow)]

exceed v.超过(限度);超越 [ME<OF exceder<L excedere(EX-, cedere cess- go)exceedingly非常地,极度地 an ~ difficult book 一本]很[ 难的书

excel v.胜过;优越;卓越 [ME<L excellere(EX-, celsus lofty)]

exception n.除外;例外;异议;不服 [ME<OF<L exceptio -onis(EXCEPT)exceptionable(文语)可提出异议的,可非难的 There’s nothing ~ in it] [那没有可非难之处]

exchequer n.资财;资源 [ME<AF escheker, OF eschequier<medL scaccarium chessboard(its orig sense, with ref to keeping accounts on] [a chequered cloth)]

exclude v.除外;排除;拒绝 [ME<L excludere exclus-(EX-, claudere shut) exclusion 赶出;撵出;除外;排斥;放逐]

exclusive a.除外的;排外的;非公开的 [medL exclusivus(EXCLUDE)]

excoriate v.使磨破皮;剥皮;严厉批评 [L excoriare excoriat-(EX-, corium hide)]

exculpate v.剖白;辩解 [medL exculpare exculpat-(EX-, culpa blame)]

excursion n.游览;旅行;脱离主题 [L excursio<excurrere excurs-(EX-, currere run)]

execrate v.憎恶;厌恶 [L exsecrare(EX-, sacrare devote<sacer sacred, accursed)excrable该咒的;可憎恨的;讨厌的]

executive a.总经理 [medL executivus(EXECUTE 实行,执行<计画、命令等>,完成<任务>对<人>执行死刑,将<人>处死]

exegesis n.注释;训话 [Gk exegesis<exegeomai interpret(EX-, hegeomai lead)]

exemplary a.可为模范的 [LL exemplaris(EXAMPLE)]

exempt v.a.n.免除;被免除的(人) [ME<L exemptus pp. of eximere exempt-(EX-, emere take)]

exertion n.努力

exhale v.吐出;发散;蒸发;发泄 [ME<OF exhaler<L exhalare(EX-, halare breathe)]

exhaustion n.耗尽 [L exhaustio(EXHAUST用尽<资源、体力等>~ one’s money 把钱用光 exhaustive彻底的,无遗漏的 ~] [inquiries (research) 彻底的调查 (详尽的研究)]

exhilarating a.令人喜欢的;使人愉快的 [exhilarare(EX-, hilaris cheerful)HILARITY欢喜;高兴]

exhort v.力劝 [ME<OF exhorter or L exhortari(EX-, hortari exhort)exhortation 劝告;忠告]

exhume v.从墓中掘出;默默发掘 [F exhumer<medL exhumare(EX-, humus ground)]

exigency n.紧急;迫切需要 [F exigence & LL exigentia(EXIGENT1<事态等>危急的,急迫的 不断要求的,纠缠不休的]

exiguous a.稀少的;细微的 [L exiguus scanty<exigere weigh exactly: exiguity 稀少;微薄;细微]

exile n.v.放逐;流放国外;流亡者 [ME<OF exil, exiler<L exilium banishment放逐,驱逐;流刑;摈弃;排除]

exodus n.大批离去 [ecclL<Gk exodos(EX-, hodos way)]

exonerate v.使无罪;免除 [L exonerare exonerat-(EX-, onus, oneris burden)]

exorbitant a.过分的;过度的 [LL exorbitare(EX-, orbita ORBIT(天体或人造卫星等绕行的)轨道 活动范围;(人生的)旅程,生活 过程]

exorcise v.驱邪;除怪

exotic a.外来的;奇特的 [L exoticus<Gk exotikos<exo outside]

expand v.使膨大;扩张 [ME<L expandere expans- spread out(EX-, pandere spread)]

expatriate n.v.脱离国籍者 [medL expatriare(EX-, patria native country)]

expediency n.权宜;便宜手段

expedite v.加速;使容易;促进 [L expedire expedit- extricate, put in order(EX-, pes pedis foot)]

expedition n.远征;探险旅行;远征队 [E<OF<L expeditio -onis(EXPEDITE)]

expel v.赶出;逐出;除名;发射 [ME<L expellere expuls-(EX-, pellere drive)n-expulsion]

expend v.花费;消费;支出;使用 [ME<L expendere expens-(EX-, pendere weigh)expendable 可消耗的;消耗品;牺牲品]

expenditure n.消费;支出 [EXPEND, after obs expenditor officer in charge of expenditure,<medL<expenditus irreg pp. of L expendere]

expiate v.补偿;赎(罪) [L expiare expiat-(EX-, pius devout虔诚的;衷心的]

expire v.终了;满期;消灭 [ME<OF expirer<L exspirare(EX-, spirare breathe) expiration 完结,终结;期满;断气;死亡]

expletive n.感叹词;咒骂语 [LL expletivus(EX-, plere plet- fill)]

explicit a.明确的;直爽的 [F explicite or L explicitus(EXPLICATE)]

exploit n.功绩 [ME<OF esploit, exploiter ult<L explicare: EXPLICATE]

explore v.探险;踏勘;精密检查 [F explorer<L explorare exploration n]

exposition n.博览会;展览会;详述 [E<OF exposition, or L expositio(EXPONENT)v-expose,expound(对人)详细说明<学说、观念等>; 释],[说明<圣典等 >(to)]

expressly ad.明白地;清楚地;特别地

expunge v.除去;删掉 [L expungere expunct-(EX-, pungere prick刺;扎)]

expurgate v.删除 [L expurgare expurgat-(EX-, purgare cleanse)]

exquisite a.精美的;灵敏的 [ME<L exquirere exquisit-(EX-, quaerere seek)]

extant a.现存的;未失的 [L exstare exstant-(EX-, stare stand)]

extemporaneous a.即席的;一时的 [extemporize即席演说;即性创作]

extenuate v.减少;减轻 [L extenuare extenuat-(EX-, tenuis thin)]

extinct a.n.已灭的;耗尽的;断绝的 [ME<L exstinguere exstinct-(EX-, stinguere quench)]

extirpate v.除尽;灭绝 [L exstirpare exstirpat-(EX-, stirps stem)STIRP血统 STIRPICULTURE 优生法]

extol v.极度称赞;颂扬 [L extollere(EX-, tollere raise)]

extort v.勒索;敲榨 [L extorquere extort-(EX-, torquere twist)extortion 强索,强取,勒索 (~s)强索 (勒索) 的行为]

extract v.拔出;抽出 [L extrahere extract-(EX-, trahere draw)]

extradition n.引渡逃犯 [extradite引渡回国;拿获归案 They refused to ~ the hijackers to the U S]

extraneous a.无关的;外部的 [L extraneus]

extravagant a.挥霍无度的;无节制的 [E<medL extravagari(EXTRA-, vagari wander)]

extremity n.末端;极点;窘境;四肢

[ME<OF extremite or L extremitas(EXTREME)at the eastern ~ of the island 在岛的东端 an ~ of joy 欢 喜之极,极度欢喜

extricate v.解脱;救出 [L extricare extricat-(EX-, tricae perplexities)]

extrinsic a.外部的;不紧要的 [LL extrinsicus outward<L extrinsecus(adv)<exter outside+secus beside]

extrovert n.外向的人 [extro- = EXTRA-(after intro-)+L vertere turn]

extrude v.逐出;挤压成 [L extrudere extrus-(EX-, trudere thrust)]

exuberant a.繁茂的;丰富的 [F exuberant<L exuberare(EX-, uberare be fruitful<uber fertile)]

exude v.渗出;流出 [L exsudare(EX-, sudare sweat)]

exult v.欢腾;狂欢 [L exsultare(EX-, saltare frequent of salire salt- leap)exultant 狂欢的;耀武扬威的]

fabric n.纺织品;组织;构造物 [ME<F fabrique<L fabrica<faber metal-worker etc fabricate 制造;捏造]

fabulous a.寓言般的;难以置信的 [F fabuleux or L fabulosus(FABLE)]

facade n.建筑物的正面

facet n.(事物之)一面 [F facette dimin(FACE, -ETTE)]

facetious a.好开玩笑的 [F facetieux<facetie<L facetia jest笑话;嘲笑;开玩笑)]

facile a.容易的;灵巧的;流畅的 [F facile or L facilis<facere do]

facilitate v.使便利;帮助 [F faciliter<It facilitare<facile easy<L facilis]

faction n.小党派;(小党派的)摩擦 [factious 闹派别的;好搞宗派活动的]

fag v.n.苦干;苦工;同性恋男人 [Jack ~ged away at his math 杰克专心费力做数学 He was completely fagged out 他已筋疲力尽 abbr of] [FAGGOT柴把,束薪(烹饪)碎肉丸]

fain a.欣然地;乐意地 [OE f’gen<Gmc]

fake n.膺品;骗子;仿造 [ME: cf Scottish faik fold]

fallacious a.使人误解的;谬误的 [fallere deceive fallacy错误]

fallible a.可能犯错的 [medL fallibilis<L fallere deceive]

fallow a.荒芜的;休耕的 [OE falu, fealu<Gmc]

familiarity n.亲密;熟悉;精通;性关系 [E<OF familiarite<L familiaritas -tatis(FAMILIAR)]

famish v.使挨饿 [ME<obs fame<OF afamer ult<L fames hunger]

fanaticism n.狂热;盲从 [F fanatique or L fanaticus<fanum temple(orig in religious sense)]

fancied a.想象的;幻想的 [fanciful奇怪的;想象的]

fanfare n.喇叭;号角声;虚张声势 [(<F "吹喇叭")]

fantastic a.奇异的;空想的 [ME<OF fantastique<medL fantasticus<LL phantasticus<Gk phantastikos(FANTAST)]

farce n.闹剧;蠢事;仿效 [orig = stuffing 填塞<L farcire to stuff, used metaph of interludes(多幕剧的)幕间(interval)etc <L."塞入"]

fare n.运费;菜肴;吃;旅行 [OE f’r, faru journeying, faran(v),<Gmc]

farrier n.蹄铁匠;兽医 [OF ferrier<L ferrarius<ferrum iron, horseshoe]

fastidious a.吹毛求疵的 [ME<L fastidiosus<fastidium loathing嫌恶;极不情愿]

fatality n.宿命;命运;死亡;死亡者 [F fatalite or LL fatalitas<L fatalis FATAL fatalism宿命论]

fatigue n.疲劳;使疲劳 [F fatigue, fatiguer<L fatigare tire out]

fatuous a.愚昧的;昏庸的 [L fatuus foolish fatuity 愚昧;昏庸]

fault n.过失;缺点;犯错误 [ME faut(e)<OF ult<L fallere FAIL]

fealty n.效忠;信实 [ME<OF feaulte<L fidelitas -tatis<fidelis faithful<fides faith]

feasible a.可实行的;易实现的 [ME<OF faisable, -ible<fais- stem of faire<L facere do, make]

febrile a.发热的;热病的 [F febrile or medL febrilis<L febris fever]

fecundity n.生产力;丰富 [ME<F fecond or L fecundus FECUND多产的;丰饶的]

feeble a.微弱的 [ME<AF & OF feble, fieble, fleible<L flebilis lamentable<flere weep]

feign v.假装;想象

[ME<feign- stem of OF feindre<L fingere mould, contrive feigned假的;做作的 unfeigned不是假装的;真 诚的

feint n.伪装;佯装攻击 [ME<OF(FEINT: FAINT<音、光等>微弱的,<颜色>不清楚的 b<希望>微小的;<念头>模糊的 (因] [劳、饥饿、疾病等) 快要昏倒的]

feisty a.脾气不好的 [feist同 fist)small dog]

felicitous a.恰切的;适当的 [a ~ choice of words 得体的措辞]

feline a.猫科的;猫的;轻行的 [L felinus<feles cat]

fell a.兽皮;砍伐 [OE fel, fell<Gmc]

felony n.重罪 [ME<OF felonie(FELON)felon(法)重罪人]

ferment n.动乱;骚动 [ME<OF ferment or L fermentum<L fervere boil]

fertile a.肥沃的;丰饶的 [ME<F<L fertilis fertility 肥沃,丰饶]

Unit 13

fervent a.强烈的;热情的 [ME<OF<L fervere boil fervid热情的 fervor热诚;热心;炽热]

fester v.化脓;腐败 [ME<obs fester(n)or OF festrir,<OF festre<L fistula: FISTULA管;楼管]

fete v.招待;庆祝;庆典;节日 [a garden (lawn) ~(美)园游会 a national ~ 国定节日]

fetid a.臭的;有恶臭的 [L fetidus<fetere stink发出恶臭的]

fetish n.被认为有神灵之物;偶像 [F fetiche<Port feiti  charm: orig adj = made by art,<L factitius FACTITIOUS 人为的,人工的;做作的],[ 不自然的

feud n.争执;领地;不和;争执 [medL feudum: FEE]

fiasco n.完全失败 [It, = bottle(with unexplained allusion): FLASK烧瓶;小水瓶]

fiat n.命令 [L, = let it be done by fiat 以(绝对)命令]

fickle a.多变的;不专的 [OE ficol;cf befician deceive, f’cne deceitful]

fictitious a.虚构的;佯装的 [L ficticius(FICTILE 塑造的;可塑造的 粘土制的;陶土制的 It’s a ~ deity 这是用粘土塑的神像 Sanhsia] [is famous for its ~ ware 三峡以陶器闻名]

fidelity n.忠诚 [F fidelite or L fidelitas(FEALTY忠诚)]

fidget v.烦躁之人 [obs or dial fidge to twitch fidgety 坐立不安的;不安定的]

fiduciary a.受托的;信托的 [L fiduciarius(FIDUCIAL基准的;根据信仰的;信托的)]

fierce a.粗暴的;凶猛的 [ME<AF fers, OF fiers fier proud<L ferus savage]

fiery a.火的,燃烧的;炯炯的

figment n.虚构的事物 [ME<L figmentum, rel to fingere fashion]

filch v.偷窃(不贵重的东西) [16th-c thieves’ sl He ~ed a piece of chalk from the teacher’s desk 他从老师的书桌上偷取一支粉笔]

file n.锉刀;推敲;锉;陶冶 [FILINGS锉屑]

filial a.子女的 [ME<OF filial or LL filialis<filius son, filia daughter FILIAL PIETY孝心]

filth n.污物;猥亵;猥亵语 [OE fylth(FOUL, -TH)filthy不洁的;污秽的]

finable a.可罚款的;应罚款的

finale n.终局;结尾 [It(FINAL)]

finesse n.手法;技巧 [F, rel to FINE]

finicky a.苛求的;太过讲究的 [单词FINICAL的变体,<FINE+ical]

finite a.有限的 [L finitus pp. of finire FINISH]

firmament n.天空;苍天 [ME<OF<L firmamentum<firmare(FIRM)(<L."支撑")]

fissile a.易分裂的;易裂的 [L fissilis(FISSURE裂缝;裂开)]

fissure n.裂缝 [ME<OF fissure or L fissura<findere fiss- cleave]

fitful a.断续的;一阵阵的;不安的 [a ~ wind 一阵阵的风]

flabby a.软弱的;意志薄弱的 [alt of earlier flappy<FLAP拍打,飘动]

flaccid a.软弱的;没力气的 [F flaccide or L flaccidus<flaccus flabby]

flag v.衰退;枯萎 [flagging adj萎靡的;疲惫的 FLAGGY松软的;疲惫的]

flagellate v.鞭打 [flagellant鞭笞者,严厉批评的 flagellum鞭子;鞭毛]

flagrant a.恶名昭彰的;声名狼籍的 [F flagrant or L flagrant- part stem of flagrare blaze火焰;燃烧]

flail v.用连枷打;击打 [OE prob<L FLAGELLUM鞭;鞭毛]

flair n.才能;本领 [F flairer to smell ult<L fragrare: FRAGRANT芬芳的]

flamboyant a.灿烂的;华丽的 [F(in Archit sense), pres part of flamboyer<flambe: FLAMBEAU火把;大烛台 flamboyance火红,华丽; 丽];[灿烂夺目]

flare v.(火焰)摇曳;闪烁

[The torches ~d in the wind 那些火炬的火焰在风中摇曳 My stomach ulcer has ~d up again 我的胃溃 疡突然又发作了 flareback 火舌回闪;反驳

flaunt v.炫耀;张扬 [Flags are ~ing in the breeze 旗子在微风中飘扬 ~ one’s riches in public 在大众面前炫耀自己的财富]

flaw n.裂缝;缺陷 [flawless无瑕疵的,无缺点的]

flay v.剥皮;劫夺;严厉斥责 [OE flean<Gmc]

fleck v.斑点;微粒 [perh<ON flekkr(n), flekka(v), or MLG, MDu vlecke, OHG flec, fleccho;fleche(法、建)尖顶塔]

fledgling a.n.无经验的(年轻人) [FLEDGE+-LING]

fleece n.羊毛;柔软的织品;诈取 [OE fleos, fles<WG I was ~d of what little I had 我所有的一点 钱都被骗走了]

fleeting a.飞逝的;疾驰的;短暂的 [FLEET+-ING]

flexible a.易曲的;柔韧的;能变形的 [ME<OF flexible or L flexibilis(FLEX)flex弯曲]

flick n.轻打;轻弹 [go to the ~s 去看电影 He ~ed me in the face 他(用指尖)轻弹我的脸]

flicker n.火光闪动 [imit of its note]

flighty a.轻浮的;心情浮动的 [FLIGHT飞行;飞跃+Y]

flimsy a.脆弱的;薄弱的 [17th c: prob<FLIMFLAM: cf TIPSY微醉的;(酒后)步伐蹒跚的 walk with a ~ step(酒醉而)步伐蹒跚] [走]

flinch v.退缩

[Without ~ing he dashed into the burning house to save the children 他毫不畏缩地冲进在燃烧的房 屋 中去救小孩

fling v.抛;突然伸出;用力摇动 [He flung a stream of abuse at me 他冲着我乱 骂一通 He was flung into jail 他被关进监狱 She angrily] [flung up her head 她生气地抬起头]

flint n.打火石;燧石

flippant a.言语尖刻的;无礼的 [FLIP蹦跳+-ANT FLIPPANCY无礼;言语尖刻]

flirt v.调情取乐;调戏;用力摇动 [imit flirtatious爱调戏的;轻浮的]

flock n.群;聚集;成群地去 [ME<OF floc<L floccus]

floppy a.懒散的;邋遢的 [floppy disk(电算)软磁碟]

flora n.植物志;植物群

[modL<the name of the goddess of flowers<L flos floris flower (植)galingale 一种姜科植物的根.萱的一 种(英国产)

florid a.华丽的;鲜红的 [F floride or L floridus<flos floris flower]

flotsam n.遇难船的残骸或漂流货物 [AF floteson<floter FLOAT)flounce 冲出,冲入扭动身体,挣扎,打滚]

flout v.轻视;嘲弄;违抗 [perh<Du fluiten whistle, hiss: cf FLUTE笛子]

fluency n.流利;雄辩

fluffy a.绒毛的;毛茸茸的;无聊的

fluke n.比目鱼;马铃薯;偶然机会 [16th c: perh<FLUKE (常 ~s)锚爪,锚钩 侥幸的击中;侥幸 win by(a)~ 侥幸得胜]

flunk n.v.考试不及格;断绝关系

[cf FUNK 却懦;畏缩 and obs flink be a coward)He ~ed the course 他那一科考试不及格(flinch 与 funk 的混合语)

flush n.疾风;飞起;水淹;脸红 [BLUSH 脸红]

fluster v.使紧张;使慌乱 [cf Icel flaustr(a)hurry, bustle]

fluted a.有凹槽的 [flute 笛,横笛(建筑)(柱子上的)长凹槽,凹槽雕刻 用横笛演奏<曲子>]

flux n.流动;不断的改变 [ME<OF flux or L fluxus<fluere flux- flow fluctuant 变动的;波动的;起伏的]

foible n.弱点;小缺点 [F, obs form of faible(FEEBLE衰弱的;无效的)]

foil n.薄金属片;圆头剑;阻挠 [<foli FOLIAGE树叶]

foist v.混入;蒙骗 [orig of palming a false die,<Du dial vuisten take in the hand<vuist FIST拳头;手]

fold n.折褶;羊栏;折摺 [OE fald]

foliage n.叶(集合称) [ME<F feuillage<feuille leaf<OF foille: FOIL]

follies n.时事讽刺舞台剧

foment v.煽动 [ME<F fomenter<LL fomentare<L fomentum poultice, lotion<fovere heat, cherish fomentation n煽动; 起];[助长]

foolhardy a.鲁莽的 [ME<OF folhardi<fol foolish+hardi bold]

footle n.梦话;做笨事;胡闹;浪费 [19th c: perh<dial footer idle]

foppish a.矫饰的;浮华的 [fop 过份讲究衣饰或举动的人]

forage n.饲料;搜寻(粮食);抢劫 [ME<OF fourrage, fourrager, rel to FODDER马料;草料 forager 强徵(粮食)队员;抢劫者]

foray n.侵袭;突袭

[ME, prob earlier as verb: back-form<forayer<OF forrier forager, rel to FODDER(家畜的)饲料,秣 为供应 不断的需求而被使用的人(东西)

forbearance n.耐心 [forbear 慎于<做>;克制,忍耐;避免 forbearing 能忍受的]

forbidding a.可怕的;令人难亲近的

forcible a.有力的;强行的 [ME<AF & OF(FORCE)]

foreboding n.不祥的预感 [She had a ~ that he might have (meet with) an accident 她预感他可能会遭到意外事故]

forensic a.辩论的;法庭的 [L forensis<FORUM]

foreordain v.注定;预定命运 [He was ~ed to fail 他注定要失败 ordain 注定;规定,制定 God has ~ed that we(should)die 上帝已注]定 [们会死]

forerunner n.先行者;先驱者

forfeit v.罚款;没收物

[ME同 crime)<OF forfet, forfait pp. of forfaire transgress(f L foris outside)+faire<L facere do FORFEITURE( 名誉等)丧失

forge n.炼铁厂;锻炼;假造 [forger伪造者;膺造者;铁匠 forgery伪造;伪造罪]

forgo v.没有...就算了;放弃 [OE forgan(FOR-, GO)]

forlorn a.孤独的;寂寞的;可怜的 [pp. of obs forlese<OE forleosan(FOR-, LOSE): forlorn hope<Du verloren hoop lost troop, orig of a] [storming-party etc]

format n.(书等的)开式;版式 [F<G<L formatus(liber)shaped(book), pp. of formare FORM FORMATIVE形成的;影响发展的]

formidable a.可畏惧的;可怕的 [F formidable or L formidabilis<formidare fear]

formulate v.用公式表示;系统陈述

forsake v.舍弃;放弃;死心 [OE forsacan deny, renounce, refuse,<WG;cf OE sacan quarrel]

forswear v.发誓抛弃;发假誓 [OE forswerian(FOR-, SWEAR发誓,宣誓,立誓 滥用神的名字,冒渎神名,说不敬神的话]

forte n.长处;强音的 [It, = strong, loud]

fortissimo a.最强的;最强音的 [It, superl of FORTE)(意大利语 forte 的最高级)]

fortitude n.坚忍;刚毅 [ME<F<L fortitudo -dinis<fortis strong]

fortuitous a.偶然的;意外的 [L fortuitus<forte by chance]

forum n.法庭;讲坛;讨论会;制裁 [(<L."公开的场地,广场")the ~ of conscience 良心的制裁]

foster v.养育;助长 [OE fostrian, foster, rel to FOOD]

foul a.v.污秽;卑鄙;犯规 [OE ful<Gmc(<OE "发恶臭的")a ~ tongue 下流的话,恶言]

founder v.浸水;挫折;陷落 [ME<OF fondrer, esfondrer submerge, collapse, ult<L fundus bottom]

fracas n.吵闹;打架 [F<fracasser<It fracassare make an uproar]

fractious a.任性的;难驾驭的 [FRACTION in obs sense ’brawling争吵’, prob after factious etc]

fracture v.n.裂缝;破口;骨折 [ME<F fracture or<L fractura(FRACTION)]

frailty n.脆弱;意志薄弱 [ME<OF frailete<L fragilitas -tatis(FRAGILE)frail 脆弱的]

franchise n.(政府准许的)特权 [ME<OF<franc, franche free: FRANK]

frantic a.发狂的;狂乱的 [ME frentik, frantik<OF frenetique<L phreneticus: PHRENETIC(古)= frenetic]

fraternity n.手足之情;兄弟会 [E<OF fraternite<L fraternitas -tatis(FRATERNAL)fraternal兄弟似的;友爱的]

fraud n.欺诈;欺诈行为;骗子 [ME<OF fraude<L fraus fraudis]

fraudulent a.欺骗的;诡诈的 [ME<OF fraudulent or L fraudulentus(FRAUD)]

fraught a.充满的 [ME, pp. of obs fraught(v)load with cargo<MDu vrachten<vracht FREIGHT货运]

fray n.吵架;磨损 [ME<fray to quarrel<affray(v)(AFFRAY 吵架;打架;闹事(尤指在公共场所,小群与小群之间打群架)]

freak n.a.v.奇异的;怪诞的;斑纹 [16th c: prob<dial]

freebooter n.海盗;流寇 [Du vrijbuiter(FREE, BOOTY): cf FILIBUSTER海盗]

freemasonry n.共济会之主义;同病相怜 [freemason 共济会会员]

frenetic a.狂乱的 [ME<OF frenetique<L phreneticus<Gk phrenitikos<phrenitis delirium<phren phrenos mind]

frenzied a.激怒的;疯狂的 [~ rage 盛怒 become ~ 发狂]

fresco n.壁画 [It, = cool, fresh]

freshet n.洪水 [prob<OF freschete<frais FRESH)freshener 清凉剂]

fretful a.焦急的;烦躁的 [FRET(使)烦躁;焦虑]

friction n.冲突;磨擦 [F<L frictio -onis<fricare frict- rub]

frigid a.严寒的 [L frigidus<frigere be cold<frigus(n)cold frigidity 寒冷;冷淡(女性的)冷感症]

fringe n.缘饰;前额的垂发 [ME & OF frenge ult<LL fimbria(earlier only in pl)fibres, fringe]

frisk v.n.戏跃;嬉戏 [obs frisk(adj)<OF frisque lively FRISKY 活泼的;快活的]

frisky a.乱跳的;欢闹的;快活的

fritter v.浪费;果肉馅油炸饼 [ME<OF friture ult<L frigere frict- FRY) ~ away one’s time(on playing cards) 浪费某人的时间(在玩纸]牌 [上) apple ~s 苹果馅油炸饼]

frivolous a.轻浮的;无价值的 [L frivolus silly, trifling frivolity 轻薄;轻率;不足取的事]

frizz v.n.使成卷发;卷发 [F friser, perh<the stem of frire FRY frizzle发嘶嘶声;卷发]

frolic v.n.嬉戏;欢闹;狂欢的聚会 [Du vrolijk(adj)<vro glad+-lijk -LY frolicsome爱嬉戏的;快活的]

frond n.复叶;叶状体 [L frons frondis leaf]

froward a.刚愎的;顽固的 [ME<FRO+-WARD]

frowzy a.懒散的;污秽的;闷热的 [cf earlier frowy]

fructify v.结果实 [ME<OF fructifier<L fructificare<fructus FRUIT]

frugality n.节俭 [FRUGAL节约的]

fruition v.结果;实现;完成 [ME<OF<LL fruitio -onis<frui enjoy, erron assoc with FRUIT]

frustrate n.破坏;挫败 [ME<L frustrari frustrat-<frustra in vain]

fugitive a.逃亡者 [ME<OF fugitif -ive<L fugitivus<fugere fugit- flee]

fulcrum n.杠杆支点 [L, = post of a couch,<fulcire to prop]

full-bodied a.醇厚的;魁梧的;重要的

fulminate v.猛烈攻击;怒喝;爆炸 [L fulminare fulminat-<fulmen -minis lightning fulmination 严厉谴责,怒喝 爆炸]

fulsome a.虚情假意的;丰满的 [ME<FULL+-SOME FULSOMENESS虚情;谗寐]

fumble v.摸索 [LG fummeln, fommeln, Du fommelen]

fume n.蒸气;愤怒;激怒 [ME<OF fum<L fumus smoke & OF fume<fumer<L fumare to smoke fumigate烘;烧香;以烟熏消毒]

functionary n.官员;公务员 [FUNCTION工作;功能]

funereal a.悲哀的 [L funereus(FUNERAL)]

furor n.狂热;大骚动 [make (create) a ~ 书籍、剧本等的风靡一时;受到狂 热的赞赏]

furtive a.偷偷的 [F furtif -ive or L furtivus<furtum theft]

fusion n.融合;联合 [F fusion or L fusio(FUSE熔化;保险丝)]

fuss n.v.大惊小怪;无事自扰 [18th c: perh Anglo-Ir]

fussy a.爱挑剔的;难取悦的 [a ~ old lady 爱挑剔的老妇人 Are you ~ about what you wear? 你介意 (在意) 自己的穿著吗? fuzzy ]<[布、衣服>绒毛的,起毛的 <物、想法等>模糊不清的]

Unit 14

gabble n.急促而不清楚地说出

[MDu gabbelen(imit)gabber 唠叨的人 If he is working amid ~s in a press box, he becomes deaf 如果他 在新闻记者席上与一群好唠叨的人工作,他就充耳不闻

gadfly n.牛蝇;令人讨厌的 [obs gad goad, spike<ON gaddr, rel to YARD]

gag v.塞住...的嘴

[~ a person(with adhesive tape)(以胶带)贴住某 人的嘴巴 ~ the newspapers 封锁报纸(的报导),压制新 闻报导 的自由

gage n.挑战;抵押 [ME<OF gage(n), F gager(v)ult<Gmc, rel to WED(文语)与结婚,嫁给 使结合(<OE "典当,约定")]

gaiety n.愉快;狂欢;华美 [F gaiete(GAY)]

gainsay v.否认 [ME<obs gain- against<ON gegn straight<Gmc+SAY]

gait n.步态 [var of GATE; with (in) a slow ~ 以缓慢的步伐]

galaxy n.银河;一群显赫的人 [ME<OF galaxie<medL galaxia, LL galaxias<Gk<gala galaktos milk]

gale n.大风 [OE gagel(le), MDu gaghel]

gall n.胆汁;怨恨;厚颜无耻 [ME<OF galle<L galla]

gallant a.v.n.英勇的;美男子;调戏 [ME<OF galant part of galer make merry gallantry 勇敢,英勇 英勇行为(对妇女的)殷勤 (亲切)]

galleon n.大帆船 [MDu galjoen<F galion<galie galley, or<Sp galeon]

gallows n.绞首台;绞刑;吊裤带 [原义为"惊恐"come (go, be sent) to the ~ 上绞架,被处绞刑]

galvanize v.使惊跳;激动 [F galvaniser: GALVANISM流电;电疗法]

gambol v.欢跳;雀跃 [GAMBADE 马的跳跃;恶作剧]

gamester n.赌徒

gamut n.全部范围;全部 [<GAMMA taken as the name for a note one tone lower than A of the classical scale+ut the first of six arbitrary] [names of notes form]

gape v.裂开 [ME<ON gapa]

garble v.篡改;曲解 [It garbellare<Arab garbala sift, perh<LL cribellare to sieve<L cribrum sieve筛子;说话轻率不能保密的人]

gargantuan a.庞大的;巨大的 [the name of a giant in Rabelais’ book Gargantua(巨人传)(1534)]

garish a.炫耀的;华丽的 [garland(胜利、成功之)荣冠;荣誉,花环,花冠;选集]

garland n.花环;诗歌选;奖品 [ME<OF garlande]

garner v.收藏;取得 [ME(orig as noun)<OF gernier<L granarium GRANARY谷仓]

garnish v.装饰 [ME<OF garnir<Gmc]

garrulous a.爱说话的 [L garrulus<garrire chatter garrulity 饶舌;多嘴]

gash n.细长的伤口;裂缝;深切 [好说话的;聪明的;穿著整齐的]

gastronomy n.美食法;美食学 [F gastronomie<Gk gastronomia(GASTRO-, -nomia<nomos law)]

gauche a.笨拙的;粗鲁的 [F, = left-handed, awkward gaucherie n]

gauge v.精确计量 [ME<ONF gauge, gauger]

gaunt a.瘦削的;憔悴的;贫瘠的

gauntlet n.铁手套 [earlier gantlope<Sw gatlopp<gata lane, lopp course, assim to GAUNTLET]

gaze n.v.凝视;注视 [cf obs gaw GAWK 笨拙的人,愚蠢的人,呆子 张口呆视()(at)]

gazette n.公报;官报 [F<It gazzetta<gazeta, a Venetian small coin GEZETTEER地名词典;地名表]

gem n.珠宝 [ME<OF gemme<L gemma bud, jewel]

genealogy n.宗谱;家系 [<Gk genealogia<genea race]

generality n.概略;概说 [F generalite<LL generalitas -tatis(GENERAL)]

generate v.产生;生成 [L generare beget(GENUS)]

generic a.属的;类的;普通的 [F generique<L GENUS]

geniality n.愉快;诚恳;亲切 [genial 爽快的;和蔼的,殷勤的]

genre n.(文艺的)类型;风俗画 [F, = a kind(GENDER性)]

genteel a.有教养的;装作贵族的 [earlier gentile, readoption of F gentil GENTLE]

gentility n.高贵的出身;有涵养 [ME<OF gentilite(GENTLE)]

gentry n.绅士阶级 [prob<obs gentrice<OF genterise var of gentelise nobility<gentil GENTLE]

genuflect v.屈膝;跪拜(之态度) [ecclL genuflectere genuflex-<L genu the knee+flectere bend]

genuine a.名副其实的 [L genuinus<genu knee, with ref to a father’s acknowledging a new-born child by placing it on his knee: later] [associated with GENUS]

germane a.有密切关系的;恰当的 [var of GERMAN)The fact is not ~ to this issue 此事实与此问题无 密切关系]

gestate v.孕育 [GESTATION n]

gesticulation n.手势;姿势 [gesticulari<gesticulus dimin of gestus GESTURE]

ghastly a.恐怖的 [ME gastlich<obs gast terrify: gh after ghost]

ghoul n.食尸鬼;嗜好古怪的人 [Arab gul protean desert demon]

gibber v.胡言乱语地说 [Aboriginal]

gibbet n.绞架 [ME<OF gibet gallows dimin of gibe club, prob<Gmc]

gibe n.讥笑;嘲弄 [perh<OF giber handle roughly 也写作JIBE,但JIBE还有另一个意思"与一致"]

gilded a.镀金的;富有的 [GILD镀金]

gimmick n.花招;装置;窍门;噱头 [20th-c US]

gist n.要旨;梗概 [OF, 3rd sing pres of gesir lie<L jacere]

glabrous a.无毛的;平滑的;光秃的 [L glaber glabri hairless]

glamorous a.富有魅力的;迷人的 [18th c: var of GRAMMAR, with ref to the occult practices associated with learning in the Middle Ages]

glare n.v.发眩光;耀眼;光滑的 [perh<glare frost(16th c, of uncert orig)]

glaze v.装玻璃;使表面光滑 [ME<an oblique form of GLASS]

gleam v.发闪光;闪现 [OE gl’m: cf GLIMMER]

glean v.捡拾;收集 [ME<OF glener<LL glennare, prob of Celt orig]

glib a.言词伶俐的 [rel to obs glibbery slippery<Gmc: perh imit]

glimmer n.v.微光;闪烁;隐约现出 [ME prob<Scand<WG: GLEAM(在微暗处闪耀的)微光 the ~ of dawn 黎明的微光]

glimpse n.v.瞥见;一瞥;隐约看见 [ME glimse corresp to MHG glimsen<WG(GLIMMER)]

glisten v.闪烁;闪光 [OE glisnian<glisian shine]

gloaming n.黄昏;薄暮 [OE glomung<glom twilight, rel to GLOW]

gloat v.心满意足、兴灾乐祸地看

[MHG glotzen stare He ~ed over his gold 他心满意足地注视自己的黄金 He ~ed over his rival’s failure 他对敌手的失败兴灾乐祸

gloom n.v.幽暗;忧郁;悲哀 [ME gloum(b)e: cf GLUM(意气消沉而)阴郁的,(忧郁而)闷闷不乐的 a ~ mood 不高兴 Don’t look so ~!] [别那样闷闷不乐 gloomy 幽暗的;黑暗的]

glossary n.词汇解释;词汇表 [L glossarium<glossa GLOSS]

glut v.使充满;过多地供应 [ME prob<OF gloutir swallow<L gluttire: cf GLUTTON 贪食者,老饕(口语)(对)入迷的人;热心者 (for,of)]

glutinous a.粘的;胶质的 [F glutineux or L glutinosus(GLUTEN麸质)]

gluttonous a.贪吃的 [ME<OF gluton, gloton<L glutto -onis<gluttire swallow, gluttus greedy gluttony n]

gnarled a.多瘤节的;粗糙的 [var of knarled, rel to KNURL节;瘤;隆起]

gnaw v.啮;啃 [OE gnagen, ult imit gnawing咬;不断的苦痛;苛责]

gnome n.侏儒;地精;格言 [Gk gnome opinion<gignosko know]

goad v.刺激;驱迫 [OE gad, rel to Lombard gaida arrowhead<Gmc]

gorge n.峡谷;塞饱;拼命吃 [ME<OF gorge throat咽喉 ult<L gurges whirlpool旋涡]

gorgeous a.华丽的;豪华的;绚烂的 [earlier gorgayse, -yas<OF gorgias fine, elegant ~ly ad华丽地,豪华地 ~ness n华丽,豪华,灿烂]

gory a.流血的;残酷的 [a ~ battle 血腥的战争 a ~ film(多血腥场面的)残酷的影片]

gossamer n.蛛丝;薄纱;如游丝的

[<GOOSE+SUMMER(goose summer, early November when geese were eaten, gossamer being common then)]

gouge v.凿;挖出 [F<LL gubia, perh of Celt orig ~ out one’s initials on a tree 在树上凿刻某人的 姓名字首 He had his eyes] [~d out 他两眼被挖出]

gouging n.欺诈;勒索

gourmand n.美食者 [gourmandise 亦作gormandize 对美食的兴趣;口腹之欲]

gourmet n.美食家 [F, = wine-taster: sense infl by GOURMAND(<F "品尝葡萄酒的人")]

graft n.v.接枝;植皮;贪污 [~ two varieties together 把两样变种接在一起 ~ (on) a new skin 移植新的皮肤]

granary n.谷仓;主要来源 [L granarium<granum grain谷粒]

grandeur n.壮丽;堂皇 [F<grand great, GRAND]

grandiloquent a.夸张的 [L grandiloquus(GRAND, -loquus -speaking<loqui speak), after eloquent etc]

grandiose a.宏伟的;堂皇的;夸大的 [F<It grandioso(GRAND, -OSE)]

graphic a.图表的;生动的 [L graphicus<Gk graphikos<graphe writing]

grate n.铁栅栏;磨碎;使人烦躁 [ME, = grating<OF ult<L cratis hurdle]

grating n.门窗栅栏;刺耳的

gratis a.免费的 [L, contracted ablat pl of gratia favour]

gratuitous a.免费的;无必要的 [L gratuitus spontaneous: cf fortuitous 意外的,偶然的 好运的]

gratuity n.小费 [OF gratuite or medL gratuitas gift<L gratus grateful]

greedy a.贪婪的;渴望 [OE gr’dig<Gmc a ~ boy 贪吃的男孩 a ~ miser 贪婪的吝啬鬼 The plants are ~ for water 植物极需水分] [He is ~ to gain power 他急欲得到权力]

greenhorn n.生手;无经验的人;新移民 [(<"刚长出角的牛")]

gregarious a.群居的;社交的 [L gregarius<grex gregis flock]

grievance n.抱怨;牢骚 [ME, = injury,<OF grevance(GRIEF)~ committee(劳资间的)诉怨处理委员会]

grievous a.悲伤的;痛苦的 [ME<OF grevos(GRIEVE)]

grill n.烤架;受烤;受炙 [F gril(n), griller(v),<OF forms of GRILLE]

grim a.严格的;恐怖的;顽强的 [OE<Gmc a ~ face 严厉的表情 a ~ task 讨厌的工作 ~ determination 坚定的决心 ~ courage 不屈的] [气]

grimace v.做鬼脸 [F<Sp grimazo<grima fright]

grind v.n.碾;孜孜工作

[OE grindan, ~ coffee beans 碾咖啡豆 ~ an ax on a grindstone 以磨刀石磨斧头 ~ away at one’s English 拼命苦学英语 ~(away)for an exam 勤苦地准备考

grip v.抓住 [OE gripe, gripa handful(GRIPE)GRIPPING引起主意的]

gripe v.抱怨;发牢骚 [OE gripan<Gmc: cf GROPE]

gripping a.扣人心弦的

grisly a.可怕的 [OE grislic terrifying]

grit n.砂砾;勇气;胆量;咬紧 [OE greot<Gmc: cf GRITSpl(谷物的)粗碾;(尤指)粗碾玉蜀黍 , GROATS pl 去壳碾碎的燕麦 (小麦)]

groom n.马夫;新郎;修整;照顾 [ME, orig = boy]

grope v.摸索 [OE grapian<Gmc ~ after the truth 追求真理 I ~d my way in (out, toward the door) 我摸索着走进 ( 去],[到门口) gropingly 摸索着;暗中摸索地]

gross a.大的;粗暴的;总体的 [ME<OF gros grosse large<LL grossus:(n)<F grosse douzaine large dozen]

grotesque a.怪异的东西 [earlier crotesque<F crotesque<It grottesca grotto-like(painting etc)fem of grottesco(GROTTO, -ESQUE)]

grotto n.岩穴;洞室 [It grotta ult<L crypta<Gk krupte CRYPT(主要指教堂的)地下室,地下墓,地窖]

grouch n.不高兴的人;发牢骚 [var of grutch: GRUDGE(<古法语"抱怨")吝于给<人>嫉妒<人的成功等>He ~s my success 他嫉妒我] [成功]

grouse n.v.松鸡;牢骚;诉苦 [GROUSE 作为"牢骚"是 GROUCH 的变体]

grovel v.匍匐;五体投地;奴颜卑膝

[back-form<obs grovelling(adv)<gruf face down<on grufe<ON gr*fu, later taken as pres part groveler五体 投地的人;卑恭屈节的人=groveller

growl n.吠声;咆哮声;咆哮;吼 [The dog ~ed at the stranger 那条狗对着陌生人 狂吠]

grudge v.怨恨;恶意 [ME grutch<OF grouchier murmur grudging不情愿的;勉强的 吝啬的,小气的 嫉妒的]

gruel n.稀粥

[ME<OF, ult<Gmc, rel to GROUT(建)给涂(或灌)薄浆;给涂薄胶泥(复)(去壳的)谷粒;(尤指)燕麦片;麦 片粥

grueling a.令人筋疲力竭的 [a ~ training 累人的训练 gruesome 令人毛骨悚然的;令人战栗的;可怕的]

gruesome a.令人毛骨悚然的; 可怕的 [Sc grue to shudder<Scand+-SOME a ~ tale 令人毛骨悚然的传说]

gruff a.粗鲁的 [Du, MLG grof coarse<WG(rel to ROUGH)]

grumble v.喃喃诉苦 [obs grumme: cf MDu grommen, MLG grommelen,<Gmc]

grumpy a.性情暴躁的 [grump(复)一阵坏脾气;发火 脾气坏的人 闹情绪 just ~ed around the house 对房子周围的一切都看不] [顺眼 抱怨 ~ed about the weather 抱怨天气]

guarded a.警戒着的;慎重的 [guardable 可守卫的 guardant 亦作 gardant(纹)(指兽面)面的]

guffaw n.哄笑;突然的大笑 [guff(俚)胡扯,瞎扯]

guile n.诈术;骗术 [ME<OF, prob<Gmc]

guilt n.罪;有罪;犯罪行为

guise n.外表;装束 [disguise假装;隐瞒]

gull n.v.鸥;易受骗之人;诈欺 [gullible易受骗的]

gulp v.吞饮;抑制;忍气 [ME prob<MDu gulpen (imit) ~ back (down) one’s tears (rage)] [抑制泪水(怒气) at (in) one ~ 一口地]

gumption n.进取心;颜料调合法 [gumptious能干的;机灵的 a ~ little helper一位精明的小助手]

gust n.阵风;味道;嗜好 [ON gustr, rel to gush流出;涌出]

gustatory a.味觉的 [GUSTATION味觉;品尝]

gusto n.爱好; 滋味; 由衷的高兴 [<L gustus taste eat with ~ 吃得津津有味 talk with ~ 谈笑风生]

gusty a.刮风的;爆发的;突发的 [a ~ wind 阵风 a dark ~ day 阴暗刮风的日子]

gut n.内脏;内容 [OE guttas(pl), prob rel to geotan pour]

guttural a.喉的 [F guttural or medL gutturalis<L guttur throat]

gynecology n.妇科医学 [GYNECOID妇女的;有女性特征的]

habiliments n.服装;衣著

habitat n.自然繁殖地;栖息地 [L, = it dwells: HABITANT居民,居住者]

hack v.n.砍;耕种;踢足球;干咳 [var of HATCH]

hackneyed a.平凡的;陈腐的 [<伦敦城郊Hackney,以养马闻名;hack 出租的老马;陈腐的]

haggard a.憔悴的 [F hagard, of uncert orig: later infl by HAG巫婆]

haggle v.讨价还价 [earlier sense ’hack’<ON h]

hairy a.多毛的;毛茸茸的

halcyon a.平静的;太平的 [<L (h)alcyon能平息风浪的含翠鸟<Gk(h)alkuon kingfisher鱼狗]

hallow v.视为神圣;使成神圣 [OE halgian, halga<Gmc hallowed Halloween万圣节10月31日]

hallucination n.幻觉 [L hallucinatio(HALLUCINATE使产生幻觉)]

halt v.立定;踌躇;停止 [OE halt, healt, healtian<Gmc]

hamlet n.小村 [Hamlet 哈姆雷特 hammam 澡堂(土耳其或东方式)]

hamper v.妨碍;阻扰 [He was ~ed by his long cloak(长披风)]

Unit 15

handicap n.v.障碍;困难;妨碍

handle n.柄;把手;处理;操作 [OE handle, handlian(HAND)]

hap n.运气 [ME<ON happ hapless不幸的;倒楣的]

haphazard a.偶然的;随便的 [HAP+HAZARD]

harangue n.长篇的高谈阔论 [ME<F<OF arenge<medL harenga, perh<Gmc]

harass v.使烦恼 [F harasser<OF harer set a dog on harassment 烦恼;侵扰;困苦]

harbinger n.先兆;先驱者 [earlier = ’one who provides lodging’: ME herbergere<OF<herberge lodging<Gmc]

harbor n.港弯;避难所;隐匿

hardy a.耐劳的;强健的;耐寒的 [ME<OF hardi pp. of hardir become bold,<Gmc, rel to HARD]

harping n.反复述说 [harpins(造船)(支持船端框架)临时木材]

harridan n.恶妇;丑老太婆 [17th-c cant, perhaps<F haridelle old horse HARD-RIDDEN]

harrow v.以耙掘;伤害 [ME<ON hervi BARROW独轮车 HAROWING苦难的;痛心的]

harry v.袭击 [Guerrillas harried our rear 游击队执拗地攻击我们的后方 Harry魔鬼;恶魔by the Lord ~ 誓必;必然 play] [Old ~ with弄坏]

hasten v.催促;促进;赶快;急行

hatch v.n.孵化;舱口;加阴影 [ME<F hacher<hache HATCHET]

haughty a.傲慢的;自大的 [HAUGHTINESS 傲慢]

haul v.拖;拉 [var of HALE 猛拉;拖曳;(尤指老人)健壮的,矍铄的]

hauteur n.傲慢;摆架子 [F<haut high]

havoc n.大荒废;大破坏 [ME<AF havok<OF havo(t), cry ~ 发掠夺(暴行)的号令;鼓动暴行]

hawser n.大缆;大索 [<OF haucier hoist升高;举起 ult<L altus high]

hazard n.v.危险;孤注一掷;偶然 [ME<OF hasard<Sp azar<Arab az-zahr chance, luck hazadous危险的]

hazy a.有雾的;模糊的 [17th c in Naut use]

heap n.v.累积;堆积;大量 [OE heap, heapian<Gmc]

heathen n.a.异教徒;野蛮的 [本来的意思是"住在长着石南的荒野之人", 罗马帝国时代, 基督教在都市 比在乡村扩展得迅速,]所 [住在heathen之人多半不是基督徒 因此 heathen就转变为]

heave v.用力举起 [OE hebban<Gmc, rel to L capere take]

hectic a.发热的;紧张兴奋的

[ME etik<OF etique<LL hecticus<Gk hektikos habitual<hexis habit, assim to F hectique or LL a ~ fever 消耗热,痨病热 a ~ flush 痨病性潮红

hedge n.篱笆;障碍;围住;守卫

[OE hegg<Gmc a quickset ~ 树篱 a ~ of convention 因袭的障碍,习俗的束缚 He felt ~d in with rules 他觉得受到规则的限制

hedonism n.享乐主义;享乐 [Gk hedone pleasure HEDONISTIC享乐的;快乐论的;快乐主义的]

heed v.留心;注意 [OE hedan<WG heedless不留心的 ~to 对加以注意 take ~ to(of)留心于]

heedlessness n.不注意;调以轻心

heel n.踵;后脚跟;随从;倾斜 [prob<obs heeld, hield incline,<OE hieldan, OS -heldian<Gmc]

hefty a.重的;肌肉发达的 [a ~ blow 重重的一击 a ~ price 相当高的价格]

hegemony n.领导权;霸权;盟主权

[Gk hegemonia<hegemon leader<hegeomai lead(<G."指导者")hold ~ over ┅ 对握有领导 (统治,支配) 权]

heinous a.极恶的;可憎的 [ME<OF haineus ult<hair to hate<Frank heinie(蔑)德国人;德国兵]

heliotrope n.向日花 [<Gk heliotropion plant turning its flowers to the sun,<helios sun+-tropos<trepo turn helio-(用于复合 中])[表"太阳"之义, 如:heliograph 日照计]

helm n.v.驾驶盘;统治;操纵 [HELMSMAN 舵手]

helping n.帮助;协助;(食物的)一份

herald n.传令官;使者;传达;预告 [ME<OF herau(l)t, herauder<Gmc]

herd n.兽群;大众;放牧;聚集

[OE heord,(in sense 3)hirdi,<Gmc herdsman 牧人,牧者;家畜群的所有者 (看顾者) (the H~)(天文)牧人 座(Bootes)

heresy n.异端邪说;异教 [ME<OF(h)eresie,<ecclL haeresis, in L = school of thought,<Gk hairesis choice, sect<haireomai choose]

heretic n.持异端学说者;异教徒 [ME<OF heretique<ecclL haereticus<Gk hairetikos able to choose(HERESY)heretical 异教的;矣谒的]

heritage n.世袭的财产;继承物;传统 [ME<OF(HERITABLE a<财产等>可传让的 <性质、疾病等>遗传性的]

hermetically ad.密封的;不透气的 [modL hermeticus irreg<Hermes Trismegistus thrice-greatest Hermes(the founder of alchemy)hermit隐士], [居者,遁世者]

hermitage n.隐士的居处;隐庐葡萄酒 [ME<OF(h)ermitage(HERMIT隐士)]

heterogeneous a.异质的;不同的 [medL heterogeneus<Gk heterogenes(HETERO-, genos kind)]

hew v.砍;伐;削

[OE heawan<Gmc The cottage was hewn as under (in two) by an earthquake 那栋小屋被地震震得崩裂 ( 震裂为两半) 了 ~ down a tree 砍倒一棵树

hiatus n.空隙;裂缝 [L, = gaping<hiare gape(成大窟窿的)裂口,裂缝张口注视(),张口呆看(at)]

hibernal a.冬日的;寒冷的 [hibernacle 动物冬眠处]

hidebound a.顽固;气量狭的;皮包骨的 [HIDE皮+BOUND包裹;约束]

hideous a.可怕的;非常讨厌的 [ME hidous<AF hidous, OF hidos, -eus,<OF hide, hisde fear]

hierarchy n.阶级制度 [ME<OF ierarchie<medL(h)ierarchia<Gk hierarkhia HIERARCH 教主;掌权者]

hieroglyphic a.象形文字 [<Gk hieroglyphikos(HIERO-神, gluphikos<gluphe carving)]

highbrow n.a.知识分子;卖弄知识者

hilarious a.喜不自禁的;欢闹的 [L hilaris<Gk hilaros cheerful]

hinder v.妨碍;阻扰;阻碍;打扰 [hindrance 妨害,障碍,阻碍物]

hindmost a.最后方的 [hinder 后面的,后部的 hindgut(胚、动)后肠;尾肠]

hireling n.雇工;雇员 [OE hyrling(HIRE, -LING)]

hirsute a.多毛的;蓬乱的 [L hirsutus]

hiss v.n.发嘶嘶声;发虚声制止 [~ at a play (an actor) 对戏剧 (演员) 嘘嘘地喝倒采 ~ a lecturer 对演说者发出不满的嘘声 ~ a speaker] [away (down) 发嘘声把演讲者轰走 (轰下 台)]

histology n.组织学;组织结构 [histo-, hist-(用于复合字中)表"组织"之义,如:histamine(生化)组胺(蛋白质分解而产生的一种氨基酸] [histie(苏)(指土地)不毛的]

histrionic a.戏剧的;演剧的 [LL histrionicus<L histrio -onis actor]

histrionics n.装模作样;舞台艺术

hitch v.拴;用力移动;被钩住

[He ~ed his horse to a tree 他把他的马系在一棵树上 He ~ed his chair nearer the fire 他把椅子移近火 [一些 ~ a ride (lift) 搭便车]

hoard n.财宝;储藏;积蓄;蓄财 [~ up treasure 积聚财宝 A squirrel ~s nuts for the winter 松鼠为过冬贮藏坚果(<中OE "宝物")]

hoary a.鬓发斑白的;陈腐的 [a ~ old excuse 老套的辩白]

hoax n.恶作剧 [18th c: prob contr<HOCUS 欺骗]

hobble v.蹒跚;跛行 [ME, prob<LG: cf HOPPLE and Du hobbelen rock from side to side]

hobnob v.n.ad.交好;共饮;随意地

[hob or nob = give or take, of alternate drinking;earlier hab nab, = have or not have ~ with the rich 与有 [人亲密地交往]

hogshead n.大桶 [ME<HOG, HEAD: reason for the name unkn hogskin 猪皮]

hoist v.n.悬起;拉升;发信号 [16th c: alt of hoise<(15th-c)hysse, prob of LG orig: cf LG hissen]

hold v.拥有;占据;举行;心怀 [obs holl<OE hol(orig adj = hollow), rel to HOLE, assim to HOLD]

hollow a.中空的;凹陷的;虚伪的 [ME holg, holu, hol(e)we<OE holh cave, rel to HOLE]

holocaust n.焚毁 [ME<OF holocauste<LL holocaustum<Gk holokauston(HOLO- (Gk holos whole), kaustos burnt<kaio burn)]

holograph n.亲笔文书;手书 [F holographe or LL holographus<Gk holographos(HOLO-(用于复合字中)表"完全,整个"之义 -GRAPH)]

holster n.手枪皮套 [17th c, synonymous with Du holster]

homely a.家庭的;亲切的 [homemaker 主妇]

homespun a.家里(织)的

homily n.讲道;说教 [ME<OF omelie<ecclL homilia<Gk homilia<homilos crowd homiletics 说教术;布道术]

homogeneous a.同类的 [medL homogeneus<Gk homogenes(HOMO-, genes<genos kind)homogenize 使均匀,使类同 ~d milk ]均 [牛奶]

homonym n.同音异义字 [L homonymum<Gk homonumon(neut adj)(HOMO-, onoma name)]

hone n.磨刀石;磨尖 [OE han stone<Gmc]

hoodwink v.蒙混;欺骗 [orig ’blindfold’,<HOOD头巾;兜帽;罩上;以头巾复盖 n+WINK 眨眼;瞬间;闪烁]

hook n.铁钩;圈套;偷窃 [OE hoc: sense of n prob influenced by Du hoek corner hooked钩状的]

hortative a.劝告的;奖励的 [L hortativus<hortari exhort =hortatory]

horticultural a.园艺的 [hortus garden, after AGRICULTURE]

hostelry n.旅馆;客栈 [ME<OF(h)ostelerie<(h)ostelier innkeeper(HOSTEL(<古法语"旅馆")(英)大学宿舍]

hostile a.怀敌意的;敌人的 [F hostile or L hostilis(HOST)]

hot-headed a.鲁莽的

hound n.猎犬;热中者;追捕;激励

[OE hund<Gmc a jazz ~ 爵士乐迷 撒纸游戏 ’hare and hounds’ 中的追赶者(<中OE "狗"的意思;此义 后为 dog 所代替)

hover v.n.翱翔;徘徊;踌躇 [ME<obs hove hover, linger]

howl v.咆哮

[ME houle(v), prob imit: cf OWL 猫头鹰;熬夜的人 howler 号哭的人,哭泣的人(口语)(遭人耻笑的)大 错误,愚蠢的错误

hoyden n.野丫头;淘气姑娘 [orig = rude fellow, prob<MDu heiden同 HEATHEN异教徒;野蛮的人)]

hubbub n.嘈杂;骚乱 [perh of Ir orig: cf Gael ubub int of contempt, Ir ab*, used in battle-cries]

huddle v.乱堆积;草率了事;拥挤 [16th c: perh<LG and ult rel to HIDE]

hull n.荚;蒂;衣服;去壳 [OE hulu ult<helan cover: cf HELE]

humane a.仁慈的;亲切的 [var of HUMAN, differentiated in sense in the 18th c]

humble a.谦逊的;身份卑微的 [ME umble, humble<OF umble<L humilis lowly<humus ground: humble pie<UMBLES pl牲畜的内脏]

humbug n.欺骗 [~ a person out of a few pence 从某人那儿骗取一些便士 humbuggery 欺骗;诈欺]

humdrum a.单调的;平凡的 [16th c: prob<HUM by redupl]

humid a.潮湿的 [F humide or L humidus<umere be moist]

humility n.谦卑 [ME<OF humilite<L humilitas -tatis(HUMBLE)]

hummock n.小丘

hump n.圆丘;山脉;意气消沉

[17th c: perh rel to LG humpel hump, LG humpe, Du homp lump, hunk(of bread)a camel with two ~s 双 [骆驼 get the ~ 心情郁闷,烦躁,情绪低落]

hunch n.瘤;预感;驼背;耸肩

[play one’s ~ 凭直觉行动 He sat at the table(with his shoulders)~ed(up) 他耸着肩坐在桌旁 hunchback 驼子(humpback)

hurdle n.竹篱笆;困难;障碍赛跑 [OE hyrdel<Gmc There are numerous ~s on the road to success 在 通往成功的路上会有许多障碍]

husbandry n.节俭;耕种;理家 [husbandman(古)农夫,庄稼人(farmer)]

hush n.无言;沉默;使静寂 [back-form<obs husht int, = quiet!, taken as a pp.]

husky a.壳的;粗野的 [husk外皮,壳;剥壳;削皮]

hustings n.竞选手续;竞选演说讲台 [late OE husting<ON h*sthing house of assembly]

hybrid n.杂种;混血儿 [L hybrida,(h)ibrida offspring of a tame sow and wild boar, child of a freeman and slave, etc]

hydra n.九头怪蛇;难根除祸患 [ME<L<Gk hudra water-snake, esp a fabulous one with many heads that grew again when cut off(被海克]力[ 斯(Hercules)杀死的九头怪蛇

hydrophobia n.狂犬症;恐水症 [LL<Gk hudrophobia(HYDRO-, -PHOBIA)]

hygroscope n.湿度计 [hygro- (复合用词)表示"湿气"hygrogram 自动湿度计所作之记录]

hyperbole n.夸张法 [L(HYPERBOLA)]

hyperborean a.极北的;酷寒的

[LL hyperboreanus<L hyperboreus<Gk huperboreos(HYPER-, Boreas god of the north wind)Hyperborean( 希神)北方净土之人

hypercritical a.苛求的;吹毛求疵的

hypochondriac n.忧愁症患者 [F hypocondriaque<Gk hupokhondriakos HYPOCHONDRIA忧郁症;臆想病]

hypocritical a.伪善的;矫饰的 [ME<OF ypocrisie<ecclL hypocrisis<Gk hupokrisis acting of a part, pretence(HYPO-, krino decide, judge)]

hypothecate v.抵押 [medL hypothecare(HYPOTHEC抵押权)]

hypothetical a.假定的 [L<Gk hupothesis foundation(HYPO-, THESIS)]

hysterical a.歇斯底里的 [modL(HYSTERIC)]

icing n.糖衣;结冰

iconoclastic a.破坏偶像的;破除迷信的 [edL iconoclastes<ecclGk eikonoklastes(ICONO- image, klao break)icon(基督圣者等的)圣像,偶像]

identify v.视为同一;使参加;认明

[medL identificare(IDENTITY(<L."同一")同一;本质 conceal one’s ~ 隐瞒身分 lose one’s ~ 失去个性 ( 独自性) double ~ 双重人格

ideology n.意识形态 [F ideologie(IDEOLOGUE (尤指倡导或阐释某思想的) 理论家,思想家]

idiom n.惯用语;成语 [F idiome or LL idioma<Gk idioma -matos private property<idios own, private]

idiosyncrasy n.习性;癖性 [Gk idiosugkrasia<idios own+sun together+krasis mixture]

idle a.v.懒惰的;浪费光阴 [OE idel empty, useless]

idol n.偶像;被崇拜的人或物 [ME<OF idole<L idolum<Gk eidolon phantom<eidos form]

idolatry n.偶像崇拜;过度崇信 [OF idolatrie(IDOLATER)idolater偶像崇拜者]

idyll n.田园生活;田园诗 [L idyllium<Gk eidullion, dimin of eidos form idyllic 田园诗(般)的,牧歌的 美妙的,美好的]

igneous a.火的;火成的 [L igneus<ignis fire]

ignite v.使燃着 [L ignire ignit-<ignis fire]

ignoble a.卑鄙的;下流的 [F ignoble or L ignobilis(IN-, nobilis noble)]

ignominious a.可耻的;不名誉的 [ME<F ignominieux or L ignominiosus ignominy耻辱;屈辱]

ignorance n.不学无术;无知;不知 [ME<OF<L ignorantia(IGNORANT)I was in complete ~ of his intentions 我完全 不知道他的意图]

illegible a.难读的

illegitimate a.非嫡出子 [L illegitimus, after LEGITIMATE 有道理的,合理的(无比较级、最高级)嫡出的]

illiberal a.吝啬的 [F illiberal<L illiberalis mean, sordid(IN-, LIBERAL(<L."自由的")慷慨的,大方的]

illicit a.违法的

illimitable a.无穷的;无限的 [LL illimitatus<L limitatus(IN-, L limitatus pp. of limitare LIMIT)]

illumination n.照明;启发;启蒙 [ME<OF illuminer<L(ILLUMINATE)]

illustration n.说明;例解;图解;图画 [E<OF<L illustratio -onis(ILLUSTRATE)]

imbecility n.愚蠢;顽钝 [F imbecil(l)e<L imbecillus(IN-, baculum stick)orig in sense ’without supporting staff’]

imbibe v.吸取;吸收 [ME<L imbibere(IN-, bibere drink)]

imbroglio n.纠葛;复杂困难的形势 [It imbrogliare confuse(EMBROIL 把卷入 (纠纷、战争等中) (in) They did not wish to become ~ed in the] [dispute 他们不希望卷入这场纷争中]

imbrue v.浸湿;污染 [OF embruer bedabble(IN-, breu ult<Gmc, rel to BROTH(煮肉等的)汤汁,肉汁(用肉汁加蔬菜等煮成的])[ 清汤

imbue v.浸染;灌输 [orig as pp.,<F imbu or L imbutus<imbuere moisten]

immaculate a.纯洁的;无瑕疵的 [ME<L immaculatus(IN-, maculatus<macula spot)]

immaterial a.非物质的;精神的 [E<LL immaterialis(IN-, MATERIAL)]

immediacy n.直接;即刻;刻不容缓

immerse v.浸;施洗礼;使陷入 [L immergere(IN-, mergere mers- dip)]

imminent a.将来临的;逼近的 [L imminere imminent- overhang, project imminence急迫;危急]

immobility n.不动;固定





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